Selected publications

2019

  • Keskin, S., Kunnas, P. & de Jonge, N., Liquid-phase electron microscopy with controllable liquid thickness. Nano Lett., early online (2019). link
  • Peckys, D.B., de Jonge, N. & Hannig, M., Oil droplet formation on pellicle covered tooth surfaces studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy. J. Microsc., early online, 2019. link
  • de Jonge, N., Mølhave, K. & Alloyeau, D., Introduction to the proceedings of CISCEM2018 – the 4th conference on in-situ and correlative electron microscopy. Microsc. Microanal. 25S1, 1-2, 2019. link
  • de Jonge, N., Houben, L., Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. & Ross, F.M., Resolution and aberration correction in liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. Nat. Rev. Mat. 4, 61-78, 2019. link
  • Cepeda-Pérez, E. & de Jonge, N., Dynamics of gold nanoparticle clusters observed with liquid-phase electron microscopy. Micron 117, 68-75, 2019. link
  • de Jonge, N., Corrigendum to: “theory of the spatial resolution of (scanning) transmission electron microscopy in liquid water or ice layers” [Ultramicroscopy 187 (2018) 113–125]. Ultramicroscopy 196, 129-130, 2019. link
  • Hahn, G., Kunnas, P., de Jonge, N. & Kempe, R., General synthesis of primary amines via reductive amination employing a reusable nickel catalyst. Nat. Catal. 2, 71-77, 2019. link
  • Abellan, P. & de Jonge, N., Preface to the special issue on liquid-phase electron microscopy. Micron 119, 117-118, 2019. link

2018

  • Keskin, S. & de Jonge, N. Reduced radiation damage in transmission electron microscopy of proteins in graphene liquid cells. Nano Lett. 18, 7435-7440, 2018. link
  • Bachmaier, A., Rathmayr, G.B., Schmauch, J., Schell, n., Stark, A., de Jonge, N. & Pippan, R., High strength nanocrystalline Cu-Co alloys with high tensile ductility. J. Mater. Res., early online, 2018. link
  • Ando, T. et al., The 2018 correlative microscopy techniques roadmap, J. Phys. D., 51, 443001-1-42 (2018). link
  • Parker, K., Trampert, P., Tinnemann, V., Peckys, D.B., Dahmen, T. & de Jonge, N., Linear chains of HER2 receptors found in the plasma membrane using liquid-phase electron microscopy. Biophys. J. 115, 503-513, 2018. link
  • Textor, M. & de Jonge, N., Strategies for preparing graphene liquid cells for transmission electron microscopy. Nano Lett. 8, 3313–3321, 2018. link
  • de Jonge, N., Theory of the spatial resolution of (scanning) transmission electron microscopy in liquid water or ice layers. Ultramicroscopy 187, 113-125, 2018. link
  • de Jonge, N., Verch, A. & Demers, H., The influence of beam broadening on the spatial resolution of annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. Microsc. Microanal. 24, 8-16, 2018. link
  • Uder, B., Gao, H., Kunnas, P., de Jonge, N. & Hartmann, U., Low-force spectroscopy on graphene membranes by scanning tunneling microscopy. Nanoscale 10, 2148-2153, 2018. link
  • Tilgner, D., Friedrich, M., Verch, A., de Jonge, N. & Kempe, R., A Metal-organic framework-based nonprecious metal photocatalyst for visible light-driven wastewater treatment. Chem. Photo. Chem. 2, 349-352, 2018. link
  • de Jonge, N., Membrane protein stoichiometry studied in intact mammalian cells using liquid-phase electron microscopy. J. Microsc. 269, 134-142, 2018. link


2017

  • Vanhecke, D., Kuhn, D.A., Jimenez de Aberasturi, D., Balog, S., Milosevic, A., Urban, D., Peckys, D.B., de Jonge, N., Parak, W.J., Petri-Fink, A. & Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Involvement of two uptake mechanisms of gold and iron oxide nanoparticles in a co-exposure scenario using mouse macrophages. Beilstein J. Nanotechnology. 8, 2396–2409, 2017. link
  • Dahmke, I. N., Verch, A., Hermannsdörfer, J., Peckys, D.B., Weatherup, R., Hofmann, S. & de Jonge, N., Graphene liquid-enclosure for single-molecule analysis of membrane proteins in whole cells using electron microscopy. ACS Nano 11, 11108-11117, 2017. link
  • Peckys, D.B., Korf, U., Wiemann, S. & de Jonge, N., Liquid-phase electron microscopy of molecular drug response in breast cancer cells reveals irresponsive cell subpopulations related to lack of HER2 homodimers. Mol. Biol. Cell 28, 3193-3202, 2017. link
  • Peckys, D.B., Stoerger, C., Lattab, L., Wissenbach, U., Flockerzi, V. & de Jonge, N., The stoichiometry of the TMEM16A ion channel determined in intact plasma membranes of COS-7 cells using liquid-phase electron microscopy. J. Struct. Biol. 199, 102-113, 2017. link
  • Hermannsdörfer, J. & de Jonge, N., Studying Dynamic Processes of Nano Sized Objects in Liquid using Electron Microscopy. JoVE 120, e54943, 2017. link
  • Zečević, J., Hermannsdörfer, J., Schuh, T., de Jong, K. & de Jonge, N., Reshaping and resizing silica nanoparticles with liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy. Small 13, 160246,-1-8, 2017. link


2016

  • de Jonge, N., Møllhave K. & Alloyeau, D., Conference on in situ and correlative electron microscopy (CISCEM 2016). Mircrosc. Microanal. 22 (S5), 1-3, 2016. link
  • de Jonge, N. & Ross, F., Past, present, and future electron microscopy of liquid specimens. in: Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy ed. Ross, F.M., Cambridge University Press, 2016. link
  • Peckys, D.B. & de Jonge, N., Liquid STEM for studying biological function in whole cells. in: Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy ed. Ross, F.M., Cambridge University Press, 2016. link
  • de Jonge, N., Browning, N., Evans, J., Chee, S.W. & Ross, F., Resolution in liquid cell experiments. in: Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy ed. Ross, F.M., Cambridge University Press. 2016. link
  • de Jonge, N. & Peckys, D.B., Live cell electron microscopy is probably impossible. ACS Nano 10, 9061-9063, 2016. link
  • de Jonge, N., Wang, C. & Ross, F.M., Transmission electron microscopy of specimens and processes in liquid. MRS Bulletin 41, 791-799, 2016. link
  • Peckys, D.B., Alansary, D., Niemeyer, B.A. & de Jonge, N., Visualizing quantum dot labeled ORAI1 proteins in intact cells via correlative light and electron microscopy. Micros. Microanal. 22, 902-912, 2016. link
  • Dahmen, T., Trampert, P., de Jonge, N. & Slusallek, P., Advanced Recording Schemes for Electron Tomography. MRS Bulletin 41, 537-541, 2016.
  • Dahmen, T., Engstler, M., Pauly, C., Trampert, P., de Jonge, N., Mücklich, F. & Slusallek, P., Feature adaptive sampling for scanning electron microscopy. Sci. Rep. 6, 25350-1-11, 2016.link
  • de Jonge, N., Liquid phase experiments – Describing experiments in liquids and the special requirements and considerations for such experiments. in: Controlled atmosphere transmission electron microscopy. ed. Hansen T.W. & Wagner, J.W., Springer, 2016. link
  • Hermannsdörfer, J., Tinnemann, V., Peckys, D.B. & de Jonge, N., The effect of electron beam irradiation in environmental scanning transmission electron microscopy of whole cells in liquid. Microsc. Microanal. 20, 656-665, 2016. link


2015

  • Hermannsdörfer J., de Jonge, N. & Verch, A., Electron beam induced chemistry of gold nanoparticles in saline solution. Chem. Comm. 51, 16393-16396, 2015. link
  • Peckys, D.B., Korf, U. & de Jonge, N., Local variations of HER2 dimerization in breast cancer cells discovered by correlative fluorescence- and liquid electron microscopy. Science Advances 1:e1500165, 2015. link
  • Casavola, M., Hermannsdörfer, J., de Jonge, N., Dugulan, J. & de Jong, K.P., Fabrication of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts by deposition of iron nanocrystals on carbon nanotubes. Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5309-5319, 2015. link
  • Peckys, D.B. & de Jonge, N., Studying the stoichiometry of epidermal growth factor receptor in intact cells using correlative microscopy. JoVE, e53186, 2015. link
  • Peckys, D.B., Baudoin, J.P., Eder, M., Werner, U. & de Jonge, N., Corrigendum: Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy. Sci. Rep. 5, 12661, 2015. link
  • Verch, A., Pfaff, M. & de Jonge, N., Exceptionally slow movement of gold nanoparticles at a solid:liquid interface investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Langmuir 31, 6956–6964, 2015. link
  • Dahmen, T., Kohr, H., de Jonge, N. & Slusallek, P., Matched backprojection operator for combined scanning transmission electron microscopy tilt- and focal series. Microsc. Microanal. 21, 725-728, , 2015. link
  • de Jonge, N., Proceedings of the second conference on in-situ and correlative electron microscopy, Saarbrücken, Germany, October 14-15, 2014, Adv. Imag. Electr. Phys. 190, 1-102, 2015. link
  • van de Put, M.W.P. , Carcouët, C.C.M.C., Bomans, P.H.H., Friedrich, H., de Jonge, N. & Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M., Writing silica structures in liquid with scanning transmission electron microscopy. Small 11, 585-590, 2014. link


2014

  • de Jonge, N., Pfaff, M. & Peckys, D.B., Practical aspects of electron microscopy in liquid. Adv. Imag. Electr. Phys. 186, 1-37, 2014. link
  • Peckys, D.B., Bandmann, V. & de Jonge, N., Correlative fluorescence- and scanning transmission electron microscopy of quantum dot labeled proteins on whole cells in liquid. Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy, ed. Verkade, P. & Mueller-Reichert, Methods Cell Biol. 124, 305-322, 2014. link
  • Barrirero, J., Engstler, M. Ghafoor, N. de Jonge, N., Odén, M. & Mücklich, F., Comparison of segregations formed in unmodified and Sr-modified Al-Si alloys studied by atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy. Journal of Alloys and Compound, J. Alloys Compd. 611, 410-421, 2014. link
  • de Jonge, N., Introduction to special issue on electron microscopy of specimens in liquid. Microsc. Microanal. 20, 315-316, 2014. link
  • Dahmen, T., Baudoin, J.P., Lupini, A.R., Kübel, C., Slusallek, P. & de Jonge, N., Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series. Microsc. Microanal. 20, 548-560, 2014. link
  • Peckys, D.B. & de Jonge, N., Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: imaging protein complexes in their native environment in whole eukaryotic cells. Microsc. Microanal. 20, 346-365, 2014. link
  • de Jonge, N., Introduction to special issue on electron microscopy of specimens in liquid. Microsc. Microanal. 20, 315-316, 2014. link
  • Peckys, D.B. & de Jonge, N., Gold nanoparticle uptake in whole cells in liquid examined by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Microsc. Microanal. 20, 189-198, 2014. link
  • Schuh, T. & de Jonge, N., Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: nanoscale imaging in micrometers-thick liquids. C. R. Physique, early online, 2014. link
  • Peckys, D.B., Dukes, M.J. & de Jonge, N., Correlative fluorescence- and electron microscopy of quantum dot labeled proteins on whole cells in liquid. Electron Microscopy: Methods and Protocols, Third Edition, ed. Kuo, J., 1117, 527-540, 2014. link


2013

  • Peckys, D.B., Baudoin, J.P., Eder, M., Werner, U. & de Jonge, N., Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy. Scientific Reports 3, 2626-1-6, 2013. link
  • de Jonge, N., In-Situ and Correlative Electron Microscopy, Proceedings of the Conference on In-Situ and Correlative Electron Microscopy (CISCEM), November 6–7, 2012, Saarbrucken, Germany. Adv. Imag. Electr. Phys. 179, 137-202, 2013. link
  • Kraus, T. & de Jonge, N., Dendritic Gold Nanowire Growth Observed in Liquid with Transmission Electron Microscopy. Langmuir 29, 8427-8432, 2013. link
  • Baudoin, J.P., Jinschek, J.R., Boothroyd, C.B., Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. & de Jonge, N., Chromatic aberration-corrected tilt series transmission electron microscopy of nanoparticles in a whole mount macrophage cell. Microsc. Microanal. 19, 814-820, 2013. link
  • Baudoin, J.P., Jerome, W.G., Kuebel, C. & de Jonge, N., Whole‐cell  analysis  of  low-density  lipoprotein  uptake  by  macrophages  using  STEM  tomography. Plos One 8, e55022-1-8, 2013. link
  • Ramachandra, R., Demers, H. & de Jonge, N., The effect of the sample thickness on the lateral- and axial resolution of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Microsc. Microanal. 19, 93-191, 2013. link


2012

  • Demers, H., Poirier-Demers, N., Phillips, M., de Jonge, N. & Drouin, D., Three-dimensional electron energy deposition modeling of cathodoluminescence emission near threading dislocations in GaN and electron-beam lithography exposure parameters for a PMMA resist. Microsc. Microanal. 18, 1220-1228, 2012. link
  • Demers, H., Ramachandra, R., Drouin, D. & de Jonge, N., The probe profile and lateral resolution of scanning transmission electron microscopy of thick specimens. Microsc. Microanal. 18, 582-590, 2012. link
  • Ring, E.A. & de Jonge, N., Video-frequency scanning transmission electron microscopy of moving gold nanoparticles in liquid. Micron 43, 1078-1084, 2012. link
  • Heeres, E.C., Oosterkamp, T.H. & de Jonge, N., Size of localized electron emission sites on a closed multiwalld carbon nanotube. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 36804-1-5, 2012. link
  • Ramachandra, R. & de Jonge, N., Optimized deconvolution for maximum axial resolution in three-dimensional aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Microsc. Microanal. 18, 218-28, 2012. link


2011

  • de Jonge, N. & Ross, F.M., Electron microscopy of specimens in liquid. Nature Nanotechnology 6, 695-704, 2011. link
  • Lupini, A.R., and N. de Jonge, The three-dimensional point spread function of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Microsc. Microanal. 17, 817-826, 2011. link
  • Demers, H., Poirier-Demers, H., Couture, A.R., Joly, D., Guilmain, M., de Jonge, N. & Drouin, D., Three-dimensional electron microscopy simulation with the CASINO Monte Carlo software. Scanning 33, 135-146, 2011. link
  • Ring, E.A., Peckys, D.B., Dukes, M.J., Baudoin, J.P. & de Jonge, N., Silicon nitride windows for electron microscopy of whole cells. J. Microscopy 243, 273-283, 2011. link
  • Peckys, D.B., Mazur, P., Gould, K.L. & de Jonge, N., Fully hydrated yeast cells imaged with electron microscopy. Biophys. J. 100, 2522-2529, 2011. link
  • Dukes, M.J., Ramachandra, R., Baudoin, J.P., Jerome, W.G. & de Jonge, N., Three-dimensional locations of gold-labeled proteins in a whole mount eukaryotic cell obtained with 3 nm precision using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. J. Struct. Biol. 174, 552-562, 2011. link
  • Peckys, D.B. & de Jonge, N., Visualizing Gold Nanoparticle Uptake in Live Cells with Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. Nano Lett. 11, 1733-1738, 2011. link
  • Heeres, E.C., Oosterkamp, T.H. & de Jonge, N., Making carbon nanotube electron sources of defined lengths and with closed caps. Nanotechnology 22, 235308-1-8, 2011. link
  • Ramachandra, R., Demers, H. & de Jonge, N., Atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy through 50-nm-thick silicon nitride membranes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 93109-1-3, 2011. link
  • Klein, K.L., Anderson, I.M. & de Jonge, N., Transmission electron microscopy with a liquid flow cell. J. Microscopy 242, 117-123, 2011. link


2010

  • Demers, H., Poirier-Demers, N., Drouin, D. & de Jonge, N., Simulating STEM imaging of nanoparticles in micrometers-thick substrates. Microsc. Microanal. 16, 795-804, 2010. link
  • Ring, E.A. & de Jonge, N., Microfluidic system for transmission electron microscopy. Microsc. Microanal. 16, 622-629, 2010. link
  • Dukes, M.J., Peckys, D.B. & de Jonge, N., Correlative Fluorescence Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Quantum Dot Labeled Proteins in Whole Cells in Liquid. ACS Nano 4, 4110-4116, 2010. link
  • Jarvis, J.D., Andrews, H.L., Ivanov, B., Stewart, C.L., de Jonge, N., Heeres, E.C., Kang, W.P., Wong, Y.M., Davidson, J.L. & Brau, C.A., Resonant tunneling and extreme brightness from diamond field emitters and carbon nanotubes. J. Appl. Phys. 108, 94322-1-6, 2010.
  • de Jonge, N., Poirier-Demers, N., Demers, H., Peckys, D.B. & Drouin, D., Nanometer-resolution electron microscopy through micrometers-thick water layers. Ultramicroscopy 110, 1114-1119, 2010. link
  • de Jonge, N., Bigelow, W.C. & Veith, G.M., Atmospheric Pressure Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. Nano Letters 10, 1028-1031, 2010. link
  • de Jonge, N., Sougrat, R., Northan, B. & Pennycook, S.J., Three-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy for biological specimen. Microsc. Microanal. 16, 54-63, 2010.link
  • de Jonge, N., Fundamental properties of CNT emitters as an electron source. in Carbon nanotube and related field emitters: fundamentals and applications, ed. Saito, Y., (John-Wiley publisher, 2010).


2009

  • Peckys, D.B., Veith, G.M., Joy, D.C. & de Jonge, N., Nanoscale Imaging of Whole Cells Using a Liquid Enclosure and a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope, PLOS One 4, e8214-1-7, 2009. link
  • de Jonge, N., Peckys, D.B., Kremers, G.J. & Piston, D.W., Electron microscopy of whole cells in liquid with nanometer resolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 2159-2164, 2009. link
  • de Jonge, N., Carbon nanotube electron sources for electron microscopes. Adv. Imag. Electr. Phys. 156, 203-233, 2009.


2008

  • Peckys, D.B., de Jonge, N., Simpson, M.L. & McKnight, T.E., End-specific strategies of attachment of long double stranded DNA onto gold-coated nanofiber arrays. Nanotechnology 19, 435301, 2008.


2007

  • de Jonge, N., Sougrat, R., Peckys, D.B., Lupini, A.R. & Pennycook, S.J., 3-dimensional aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy for biology, in Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine, ed. Vo-Dinh, T., pp. 13.1- 13.27, CRC Press, 2007.
  • Lupini, A.R., Rashkeev, S.N., Varela, M., Borisevich, A.Y., Oxley, M.P., van Benthem, K., Peng, Y., de Jonge, N., Veith, G.M., Chisholm, M.F. & Pennycook, S.J., Scanning transmission electron microscopy, in Nanocharacterization, ed. Kirkland, E.J. & Hutchison, J.L., pp. 28-65 (Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2007).
  • Edgcombe, C. J. & de Jonge, N., Deduction of work function of carbon nanotube field emitter by use of curved-surface theory. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 4123-4128, 2007.
  • Heeres, E.C., Bakkers, E.P.A.M., Roest, A.L., Kaiser, M., Oosterkamp, T.H.. & de Jonge, N., Electron emission from individual indium arsenide semiconductor nanowires. Nano Lett. 72, 536-540, 2007.


2006

  • Doytcheva, M., Kaiser & de Jonge, N., In-situ transmission electron microscopy investigation of the structural changes in carbon nanotubes during electron emission at high currents. Nanotechnology 17, 3226-3233, 2006. link
  • Kaiser, M., Doytcheva, M., Verheijen, M.A. & de Jonge, N., In-situ transmission electron microscopy of individual free-standing carbon nanotubes. Ultramicroscopy 106, 902-908, 2006.
  • Milne, W.I., Teo, K.B.K., Mann, M., Bu, I.Y.Y., Amaratunga, G.A.J., de Jonge, N., Allioux, M., Oostveen, J.T. , Legagneux, P., Minoux, E., Gangloff, L., Hudanski, L., Schnell, J.P., Dieumegard, L.D., Peauger, F., Wells, T. & El-Gomati, M., Carbon nanotubes as electron sources. Phys. Stat. Sol. 203, 1058-1063, 2006.
  • Edgcombe, C. J. & de Jonge, N., Properties of a field emitter deduced from curvature of its Fowler-Nordheim plot. J. Vac. Sci. Technol B 24, 869-873, 2006.


2005

  • de Jonge, N., Allioux, M., Oostveen, J.T., Teo, K. B. K & Milne, W. I, Low noise and stable emission from carbon nanotube electron sources. Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 133118-1-3, 2005. link
  • de Jonge, N., Allioux, M., Oostveen, J.T., Teo, K. B. K & Milne, W. I, The optical performance of carbon nanotube electron sources. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186807-1-4, 2005. link
  • de Jonge, N., Doytcheva, M., Allioux, M., Kaiser, M., Teo, K. B. K, Lacerda, R. G. & Milne, W. I, Cap closing of thin carbon nanotubes. Adv. Mater. 17, 451, 2005.


2004

  • de Jonge, N. & Bonard, J. M., Carbon nanotube electron sources and applications. (review paper) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 2239-2266, 2004.link
  • Doytcheva, M., Kaiser, M., Verheijen, M. A., Reyes-Reyes, M., Terrones, M. & de Jonge, N., Electron emission from individual nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Chem. Phys. Lett. 396, 126-130, 2004.
  • De Jonge, N. Allioux, M., Doytcheva, M., Kaiser, M., Teo, K. B. K, Lacerda, R. G. & Milne, W. I, Characterization of the field emission properties of individual thin carbon nanotubes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1607-1609, 2004. link
  • de Jonge, N., The brightness of carbon nanotube electron emitters. J. Appl. Phys. 95, 673-681, 2004. link


2001-2003

  • de Jonge, N., Lamy, Y., & Kaiser, M., Controlled mounting of individual multi-walled carbon nanotubes on support tips. Nano Lett. 3, 1621-1624, 2003. link
  • de Jonge, N. & van Druten, N. J., Field emission from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared in an electron microscope. Ultramicroscopy 95, 85-91, 2003.
  • de Jonge, N., Lamy, Y., Schoots, K., & Oosterkamp, T. H., High brightness electron beam from a multi-walled carbon nanotube. Nature 420, 393-395, 2002. link


1994-2000

  • Rau, H. K., de Jonge, N. & Haehnel, W., Combinatorial synthesis of four-helix bundle hemoproteins for tuning cofactor properties. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39, 250-253, 2000. link
  • de Jonge, N., Rau, H. K. & Haehnel, W., Light induced electron transfer in synthetic metalloproteins. Z. Phys. Chem. 213, 175-180, 1999.
  • Rau, H. K., de Jonge, N. & Haehnel, W., Modular synthesis of de novo-designed metalloproteins for light-induced electron transfer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95, 11526-11531, 1998. link
  • van den Brink, H. B. et al., Neutral-pion electroproduction on the proton near threshold. Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3561-3564, 1995.
  • Bobeldijk, I. et al., High-momentum protons in /sup 208/Pb. Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2684-2687, 1994.